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XTM Cloud 13.4


XTM Glossary

API (Application Programming Interface)

A software interface that enables applications to communicate with each other. An API is the set of programming language constructs or statements that can be coded in an application program to obtain the specific functions and services provided by an underlying operating system or service program.

Bidirectional (writing system)

A writing system in which text is generally flush right, and most characters are written from right to left, but some text is written left-to-right as well. Arabic and Hebrew are the only bidirectional writing systems in current use.


A Project Manager may divide the text segments of a job into sections which are called bundles. Bundles can be allocated to different Linguists.

CAT (Computer-Aided Translation)

Computer technology applications assisting in the act of translating text from one language to another.

CMS (Content Management System)

A system used to store and subsequently find and retrieve large amounts of data. CMSs were not originally designed to synchronize translation and localization of content, so most have been partnered with globalization management systems (GMS).


A concept consists of a term in a source language and terms in target languages.


An alphabetical index of a word or phrase in the source text showing every contextual occurrence of the word or phrase in the text and in the available TM.

DITA (Darwin Information Typing Architecture)

An XML-based architecture for authoring, producing and delivering technical information. This architecture consists of a set of design principles for creating “information typed” modules at a topic level and for using that content in delivery modes such as online help and product support portals on the web.

Fuzzy match

Refers to the situation when a sentence or phrase in a translation memory (TM) is similar (but not a 100% leveraged match) to the sentence or phrase the translator is currently working on. The TM tool calculates the degree of similarity or “fuzziness” as a percentage figure.

GMS (Globalization Management System)

Also known as Translation Management System (TMS). Focuses on managing the translation and localization cycles and synchronizing those with source content management. Provides the capability of centralizing linguistic assets in the form of translation databases, leveraging glossaries and branding standards across global content.

GMX-V (Global Information Management Metrics eXchange – Volume)

A word and character count standard for electronic documents. GMX-V is developed and maintained by OSCAR (Open Standards for Container/Content Allowing Re-use), a special interest group of LISA (Localization Industry Standards Association). GMX-V, one of the tripartite series of standards from LISA, deals with electronic document metrics. GMX is made up of the following standards: GMX-V — Volume; GMX-C — Complexity; and GMX-Q — Quality.

ICE match (In-Context Exact match)

Refers to the situation when a sentence or phrase in a translation memory (TM) is the same phrase in the same context as the sentence or phrase the translator is currently working on.

Inline tags

XML contains elements that – depending on the configuration of XTM Cloud – can be treated as text elements for translation or inlines representing formatting such as bold or italic.

XTM Cloud converts the inlines to inline tags which are displayed in XTM Workbench as numbers in curly brackets such as {1}. The inline tags in the source text need to be placed in the translated target text.

There are three types of inline tags in XTM Workbench that are displayed in the source text. Generally, it is recommended to insert them into the target text in the same order as they are in the source text.

You can modify the order of inline tags provided that the sequence of opening and closing tags is correct.

Internationalization (i18n).

The process of generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions without the need for redesign. In i18n, the common abbreviation for internationalization, the 18 refers to the eighteen letters between the i and the n.

ITS (Internationalization Tag Set)

ITS (Internationalization Tag Set) is a W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard for XML files that supports internationalization and localization. In XTM Cloud, ITS files are used to specify which elements from the filter output file should be translated and how they should behave regarding neighbor elements.


In the XTM Workflow, the processing of one file from the source language to one target language is a job.

Leveraged match

A leveraged match is when a sentence or phrase in a translation memory (TM) is the same phrase in a different context as the sentence or phrase the translator is currently working on.

Localization (l10n)

In this context, the process of adapting a product or software to a specific international language or culture so that it seems natural to that particular region. True localization considers language, culture, customs and the characteristics of the target locale. It frequently involves changes to the software’s writing system and may change keyboard use and fonts as well as date, time and monetary formats. In l10n, the common abbreviation for localization, the 10 refers to the ten letters between the l and the n.


A measure of the number of segments, words, and characters in the source document, together with a summary of the different types of matching that are present after the translation memory has been applied. It also includes matching from within the document or repetitions.

MT (Machine Translation)

A technology that translates text from one human language to another, using terminology glossaries and advanced grammatical, syntactic and semantic analysis techniques.

NMT (Neural Machine Translation)

is an approach to machine translation that uses an artificial neural network to predict the likelihood of a sequence of words, typically modeling entire sentences in a single integrated model.

source: Wiki

OAXAL (Open Architecture for XML Authoring and Localization)

A reference model of how to construct an effective and efficient system for XML authoring and Localization based on Open Standards.

Pivot language

Also known as a bridge language. It is used as an intermediary language enabling translation between any combination of language pairs.


In XTM Cloud, pre-processing can be used to:

1. lock segments so that they are not taken for translation.

2. edit the source text prior to the translation when the new source language is the same as the original source language.

3. make use of a pivot language in the translation process. In the case of the pivot language, the source language is first translated into one language and then that target language becomes the new source for the translation into other target languages.


In XTM Cloud translating one or more files from one source language to one or more target languages is a project.

QA (Quality Assurance)

The activity of providing the evidence needed to establish confidence among all concerned that quality-related activities are being performed effectively. All those planned or systematic actions are necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. QA covers all activities from design, development, production, and installation to servicing and documentation.

QMM (Query Management Module)

A built-in chat allowing in-app communication.

regular expression (regex)

A search pattern composed of a sequence of characters.

Regular expressions can be used to perform an in-depth quality assurance check. XTM Cloud provides a series of predefined regexes in the QA profile, and you can also add your own custom regex.

Right-to-left languages

Languages such as Hebrew, Arabic, Urdu, and Farsi are written primarily right-to-left. This text flow presents significant text and graphic layout implications.

SaaS (Software as a Service)

Software that is deployed over the internet. With SaaS, a provider licenses an application to customers as a service on-demand, through a subscription, in a "pay-as-you-go" model. The XTM SaaS product is called XTM Cloud.


A unit of text that the CAT tool creates in order to match against the translation memory. The unit may be a single word, a phrase, one or more sentences, or even a larger unit.

source language

The language of a text which is to be translated into another language.

SRX (Segmentation Rules eXchange)

The vendor-neutral standard for describing how translation and other language processing tools segment text for processing. It allows translation memory and other linguistic tools to describe the language-specific processes by which text is broken into segments (usually sentences or paragraphs) for further processing.


The workflow in XTM Cloud is composed of steps; the available default steps are translate, correct, and review.


In programming: An alphanumeric sequence of letters and/or numbers.

Target language

The language into which a text written in another language is to be translated.


In XTM Cloud processing, a bundle of segments in one step is a task.


In terminology management, a term is a subset of a concept.

Term equivalent

In terminology management, a term equivalent is a term in the target language ("translated term").

Terminology Manager

A database of terminology concepts.

TM (Translation Memory)

A database that stores previously translated sentences which can then be reused, in full or in part, on a sentence-by-sentence basis. The database matches source to target language pairs.

TMX (Translation Memory eXchange)

An open standard, based on XML, designed for exchanging Translation Memories (TMs) between CAT tools.


The Unicode Worldwide Character Standard (Unicode) is a character encoding standard used to represent text for computer processing. Originally designed to support 65,000 characters, it now has encoding forms to support more than 1,000,000 characters.

Unicode Transfer Format (UTF-8)

An encoding form of Unicode that supports ASCII for backward compatibility and covers the characters for most languages in the world.

Visual mode

A feature of XTM Workbench enabling the translator to see the source files in-context. It is available for HTML, XML, and InDesign source files.

web service

A collection of protocols and standards used for exchanging data between applications or systems.


In XTM Cloud, workflow allows Project Managers to create and manage projects. PM assigns one of the customizable workflows consisting of workflow steps, such as translate, review, correct, or LQA.


A free Quality Assurance (QA) tool for translators. You can find and correct terminology, detect double blanks and inconsistencies in any reference material's source and target documents.


A module developed for XTM Cloud, which allows companies to post their localization jobs, it enables other XTM Cloud subscribers to connect with them to bid on these jobs, and additionally, freelance translators can post their details so that LSPs can proactively contact them when they are seeking vendors with the right skills and experience.

XLIFF: Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF)

An XML-based format for exchanging localization data. Standardized by OASIS in April 2002 and aimed at the localization industry, XLIFF specifies elements and attributes to aid in localization. XLIFF could be used to exchange data between companies, such as a software publisher and a localization vendor, or between localization tools, such as translation memory systems and machine translation systems.

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) (XML)

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, flexible text format originally designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing. XML also plays an increasingly important role in the exchange of a wide variety of data on the Web and elsewhere.


XML-based text memory, a LISA OSCAR standard for author and translation memory.

XTM Workbench

XTM Workbench is a browser-based translation editor.